Sustainable Tourism Development in the Nordic Arctic

The Icelandic Seal Center has been invited to join a research network called, “Sustainable Tourism Development in the Nordic Arctic.” Dr. Jessica Aquino, Head of Tourism Research, will be ISC’s representative for the network. The aims of this network are to investigate how to utilize existing human capital, natural resources (especially living marine resources), and infrastructure capacity to develop innovative sustainable tourism that can diversify and make Arctic economic development more resilient. This is to be achieved through three interrelated workshops in the Arctic regions of the Nordic countries. The first workshop was hosted in Northern Norway in April 2018. The seconded workshop will be hosted in Northern Iceland from 18-22 March 2019. Funding for this network is provided by NordRegio, UArctic, and the International Network Program of the Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education.

Icelandic Culture and Nature marked as “Good Practice Example”

In 2018 Húnaklúbburinn invited a youth group from Sweden to join us in Hvammstangi to learn about each other’s culture and our connection with nature. The project was funded by Erasmus+ and supported by Húnaþing vestra, Félagsmiðstöðin Órion, Hólar University College, and the Icelandic Seal Center. This project was marked as a “Good Practice Example.”

Projects such as Húnaklúbburinn are a great example of university-community partnerships that sees communities as intellectual spaces. Húnaklúbburinn’s collaborative efforts enable the youth, and those who are interested in strengthening youth programs, to participate effectively in their community to achieve a common good.

Húnaklúbburinn is a children’s nature club, established in 2016 for the youth of Húnaþing vestra, with the purpose of connecting youth and nature by using a combination of environmental education and nature-based recreation. It has two basic principles, that children have the right and responsibility in shaping their own futures and the futures of their communities; and that children develop a genuine appreciation of the natural environment—and a sense of their own competence—through direct interaction with nature.

Jessica Aquino manages and directs Húnaklúbburinn. She is also an Assistant professor at Hólar University College and is Head of the Tourism Research Department at the Icelandic Seal Center.

      

                          

A new grey seal population assessment

A grey seal census was conducted by The Marine and Freshwater Institute in co-operation with The Icelandic Seal Center. The results from the survey are presented in a report which can be found here.

The Icelandic grey seal population is estimated to be 6300 animals, while the population was estimated at 4200 animals the last time a census was conducted in 2012. The population was approximately 32% smaller than when the first census was conducted in 1982 when the population was roughly 9200 animals. Analysis for the period 2005–2017 revealed no statistically significant trend for the total population size since the current population size is close to the estimated population size of 2008/9 and slightly larger than the estimate of 2005.

In 2017 the population was estimated to be larger than the governmental management objective for the grey seal population of 4100 animals. According to the Icelandic red list for threatened populations, which is based on criteria put forward by IUCN, the grey seal population should at its current level be considered as “Vulnerable”. Based on the last census from 2012, the population was considered as “Endangered”.

The results show that the peak of the pupping period varied from 2 October (Frameyjar in Breiðafjörður) to 24 October (Strandir). Breiðafjörður was the most important pupping area in Iceland, with 58% of the total estimated pup production in 2017. Other important breeding sites were Strandir and Skagafjörður in NW Iceland, as well as Surtsey and Öræfi on the South Coast.

The status of the grey seal population is considerably better than that of the Icelandic harbor seal population, which has declined by 77% from 1980 when censuses commenced, and a decrease of one third was observed between the years 2011 and 2016 when a census was last conducted. The Icelandic harbor seal population is considered as “Critically endangered” according to the Icelandic red list.

Þjóðarspegillinn: Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes (ReSea)

ReSea held a session on Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes at Þjódarspegillinn 2018 on 26 October 2018. The research network called ReSea (Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes) began on June 2016 as a cooperation between the Icelandic Seal Center, Hólar University College, the Icelandic Tourism Research Center (ITRC), the Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, and the Arctic University of Norway. It has since grown to include a total of 20 experts from 11 institutions and organizations from 5 countries with an aim in conducting interdisciplinary research guided by inter-sectoral knowledge. ReSea research is focused on the following guiding research question. “How can tourism be performed responsibly in Arctic seascapes?” The long-term purpose of this network is to connect international experts and stakeholders to address the need for sustainable tourism development and responsible tourism practices in Arctic coastal communities and seascapes. Researchers during this session discussed their work exploring the understanding of sustainable tourism and responsible management practices in Arctic seascapes. Their work highlights the importance of collaborating with a variety of stakeholders and academics from both the social and natural sciences which incorporates interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral research and knowledge.

Þjóðarspegillinn 2018 Session Agenda:
Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes (ReSea)

12:00-12:05—Jessica Faustini Aquino (Chair)

Discussion of the ReSea Network and an Introduction to Today’s Session

12:05-12:30—Auður H. Ingólfsdóttir (Chair)

Whale watching and sustainable development

Auður is a researcher at the Icelandic Tourism Research Centre (ITRC). Her research interests are in the field of sustainable tourism and include topics such as climate change and tourism, nature-based tourism, and CSR within the tourist sector.

12:30-12:55—Þórný Barðadóttir

Cruise ship visits to coastal communities

Þórný is a researcher at the Icelandic Tourism Research Centre (ITRC). Her research interests are in regional tourism development where recent research projects have taken focus in on-land service of cruise ships and the regional tourism linked to passenger visits.

12:55-13:20—Jessica Faustini Aquino, Georgette Leah Burns & Sandra Magdalena Granquist

Developing a framework for responsible wildlife tourism

Jessica holds a joint position as the Head of Tourism Research at the Icelandic Seal Center and Assistant Professor at Hólar University College in the Department of Rural Tourism. Her research interests are in tourism experience from the perspective of residents and tourists; volunteer tourism; sustainable tourism and responsible tourism practices; and the potential contribution that tourism has on community development and responsible management of natural areas.

13:20-13:45—Sandra M. Granquist and Jessica Faustini Aquino

Effects of seal watching activities on harbour seal behaviour: The importance of interdisciplinary management approaches

Sandra holds a joint position as the Head of Seal Research at the Icelandic Seal Center and Specialist at The Marine and Freshwater Research Institute in the Pelagic division. Sandra’s research interests range from animal population biology to responsible wildlife tourism, including: Monitoring of Icelandic seal populations and management advice; Studies on animal behaviour; Anthropogenic interactions with marine mammals, such as effects of tourism on marine mammal ecology; Transferring of scientific knowledge to society.

13:45-14:00—Final discussions with all of the presenters

Gauja Hlín New Chair of NW Tourism Alliance

The North West Iceland Tourism Alliance elected Gauja Hlín as chair at its recent AGM.

Gauja is a tourism graduate from Hólar University College, and Manager of the travel agency Seal Travel; a subsidiary of the Icelandic Seal Centre.

We offer Gauja our best wishes in her new role.

Vistor numbers Q1 2018 down 14%

The tourist information centre for Hunathing vestra at the Icelandic Seal Centre welcomed 1679 guests during the first three months of 2018. For the same quarter (Q1) in 2017 we welcomed 1958 guests. This is a Year-on-Year (YoY) 14% decrease in visitation.

Number of tickets sold to the museum also decreased in Q1 2018, by 10% YoY.

Decreases in visitation occurred in all 3 months, with January down 17%, February down 16%, and March down 13%. The decrease in visitation is partially explained by bad weather in January and February, as mountain passes to the North were frequently impassable, but this was not the case in March.

Q1 and Q4 is where the fewest visitors come to the centre, so this decrease does not have much significance to our total number of guests for the year – but these numbers may provide an indication of a cooling of the tourism sector in peripheral regions.

Visitors 2017

At the end of the year, it is time for a little retrospective. In 2017 the Húnaþing vestra Visitor Information Centre here at the Icelandic Seal Centre welcomed a total number of 42,481 guests in 2017. This is an 8% year-on-year (YoY) increase, and represents a significant softening of visitor number growth, as 2016 YoY growth was 44%, and 2015 YoY growth was 35%. In and of itself, a lesser growth in sheer numbers is not particularly concerning, but what is of concern is the 29% YoY decrease in turnover that the Seal Centre experienced last year according to our provisional numbers.

 

13,417 guests paid to visit our museum, which is a 12% increase YoY, and we are delighted that the number of visitors paying to enter the museum grew faster than the number of guests to the visitor centre – although, it must be noted that the aforementioned decrease in turnover occurred in spite of this increase in museum visits, it is therefore safe to say that in 2017 travellers clutched their purses tightly, when it came to leisure activities and souvenir shopping, at least.

Interactive grey seal pup exhibit opened

A new interactive exhibit, which uses GPS data from a grey seal pup that Seal Centre scientists tagged in 2016, has openend at the museum. Many guests joined us for the occasion, and the exhibit, designed by Gagarín, went down a storm.

The project is funded by the National Marine Aquarium in the UK, the Regional Development find of North West Iceland, and the municipality of Húnaþingi vestra.

Camera Trap Project Update

María checking on Camera 1.

Since their installation in May, two automatic trail cameras have been photographing two skerries off the west coast of Vatnses. The cameras turn themselves each morning at day break, they then take one photo every 10 minutes, then they shut themselves off when darkness comes after sunset. Also, they are triggered by motion (a feature we cannot shut off) so we get extra photos every time a bird flies close enough to the sensor. Each month, researchers go out to check on the cameras and to switch out batteries and memory cards. The photos are then downloaded to a hard drive and we are combing through the ever-growing collection of photographs to record when seals were hauled out on the rocks and how many there were.

A group of harbor seals hauled out on Skerry 2.

The data collected during this project will be useful in more ways than one. First, it’s a pilot study on the presence and behavior of seals at a location that is being considered for development of a new seal watching site. An important part of the feasibility of this site for seal watching is seal activity. So far, it looks like there are seals hauled out there every time the tide is low enough for the skerries to be exposed. We have been seeing female seals with pups as well as individual seals and adults with no pups. Once all photographs from this year are reviewed, the data will be analyzed to look for trends in behavior. We can investigate changes in the number of seals hauling out at the location from May through December. We can also use these series of photos to estimate how long individual seals on the rocks and possibly to gain insight into what factors influence the patterns we see in their behavior.

Sometimes there is not a breath of movement in the air. Here, some pups born earlier in the summer lie, undisturbed on Skerry 2.

This is being considered a pilot study, which means that we don’t yet know the full detailed results we will get from this. Probably, this project will inspire new questions for further investigation using more precise methods to collect more in-depth data.

Hauled out seals appear to be relaxed at this site even when the weather is not what we would consider perfect. In fact, seals can overheat if the weather is too warm, as they are adapted to the cold water environment.

Visitor numbers and turnover for the museum and travel services section of the Icelandic Seal Centre, H1 2017

Turnover down 27% in June Year on Year (YoY)

YoY comparison is difficult for the first four months of the year, as the Icelandic Seal Centre had regular and advertised opening hours for the first time during the winter in this winter just passed. As a result, the period of January-April shows a healthy increase in total visitor numbers and turnover. Total visitor number includes guest that only visit the Information Centre, as well as those guests that paid an entry fee to the museum. Total guests in January were 301, in February 438, in March 1,219, and in April total guests were 1,283. The total number of guests for the first four months of 2017 was therefore 3,241, compared to 1,860 for the same period in 2016 – or a 74% increase, during the same period turnover increased by 58%. It is worth reiterating, however, that the opening hours YoY are not comparable and these numbers need to viewed in that context. It is also worth pointing out that the total number of visitors for these 4 months is lower than that for May alone.

Opening hours in May and June are comparable, however.

In May 2017 the total number of guests was 3,312, which is a 1% decrease YoY. During the same period total turnover decreased 17% YoY. Interestingly, the number of guests that paid to enter the museum increased by 6% YoY for the same period, and the museum is therefore a larger part of total turnover than before.

In June 2017 the total number of guests was 6,941, which is a 6% increase compared to 2016. During the same period total turnover decreased 27% YoY. Interestingly, the number of guests that paid to enter the museum increased by 14% YoY for the same period, and the museum is therefore a larger part of total turnover than before.

Entry fees for the museum have not gone up since 2012, products from Icelandic suppliers have remained static in price in ISK YoY, and a stronger Icelandic króna and changes in customs have resulted in products imported by the Seal Centre itself being cheaper this year than last in ISK.