The Marine and Freshwater Research Institute has, in cooperation with the Icelandic Seal Center, completed a new harbour seal census. The report can be found here. The harbour seal population is estimated to be 9400 animals. Regular population censuses were initiated in 1980 to monitor trends in the population size of Icelandic harbour seals. The current estimate is 72% smaller than in 1980, but 23% larger than in 2016 when the last complete population census was conducted.
Most of the observed decrease in the population occurred between the years 1980 and 1989. Results indicate that the population currently seems to fluctuate around a minimum stock level.
The current estimate is 21% below the governmentally issued management objective for the minimum population size of harbour seals in Iceland (12,000 animals).
To raise the numbers in the population to match the management objective, the Marine and Freshwater Research Institute (MFRI) advises that direct hunting should be banned and that actions must be taken to reduce by-catch of seals in commercial fisheries. If limited hunting will be allowed, MFRI advises that a hunting management system should be initiated, and that reporting of all seal hunts should be mandatory. MFRI further advises that attempts to minimize anthropogenic disturbance of harbour seal colonies are initiated, in particular during breeding and moulting seasons between May and August. The advice can be found here.
On Friday 28 June at 09:00, Cécile Chauvat will be giving a presentation on her research proposal about biospheric values of tourists at seal watching spots in North-Western Iceland. Cécile’s research will assess the correlation between biospheric values of tourists and their knowledge of their impacts on the biosphere.
Naturalist, Einar Ó. Þorleifsson, has taken the reins of a new job with the Northwest Iceland Nature Centre, inconjuction with the Icelandic Seal Center. He has a degree in geography with concentrations in biology and geology. Einar has spent countless hours over many years studying birds. His specialties are wetlands ecology and wetland birds. In addition, Einar has participated in a wide body of research on the distribution of birds in Iceland, especially those that settled Iceland from the Twentieth Century until today.
Einar will be working on various natural science studies, most based in ornithology, in the wide area under the purview of the Northwest Iceland Nature Centre. His main office is provided by the Icelandic Seal Center in Hvammstangi.
Those who would like to share information about interesting birds (for instance, new nesting sites) or discoveries of plants or unusual geological phenomena are welcome to look to him for more information.
The Icelandic Seal Center has been invited to join a research network called, “Sustainable Tourism Development in the Nordic Arctic.” Dr. Jessica Aquino, Head of Tourism Research, will be ISC’s representative for the network. The aims of this network are to investigate how to utilize existing human capital, natural resources (especially living marine resources), and infrastructure capacity to develop innovative sustainable tourism that can diversify and make Arctic economic development more resilient. This is to be achieved through three interrelated workshops in the Arctic regions of the Nordic countries. The first workshop was hosted in Northern Norway in April 2018. The seconded workshop will be hosted in Northern Iceland from 18-22 March 2019. Funding for this network is provided by NordRegio, UArctic, and the International Network Program of the Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education.
In 2018 Húnaklúbburinn invited a youth group from Sweden to join us in Hvammstangi to learn about each other’s culture and our connection with nature. The project was funded by Erasmus+ and supported by Húnaþing vestra, Félagsmiðstöðin Órion, Hólar University College, and the Icelandic Seal Center. This project was marked as a “Good Practice Example.”
Projects such as Húnaklúbburinn are a great example of university-community partnerships that sees communities as intellectual spaces. Húnaklúbburinn’s collaborative efforts enable the youth, and those who are interested in strengthening youth programs, to participate effectively in their community to achieve a common good.
Húnaklúbburinn is a children’s nature club, established in 2016 for the youth of Húnaþing vestra, with the purpose of connecting youth and nature by using a combination of environmental education and nature-based recreation. It has two basic principles, that children have the right and responsibility in shaping their own futures and the futures of their communities; and that children develop a genuine appreciation of the natural environment—and a sense of their own competence—through direct interaction with nature.
Jessica Aquino manages and directs Húnaklúbburinn. She is also an Assistant professor at Hólar University College and is Head of the Tourism Research Department at the Icelandic Seal Center.
A grey seal census was conducted by The Marine and Freshwater Institute in co-operation with The Icelandic Seal Center. The results from the survey are presented in a report which can be found here.
The Icelandic grey seal population is estimated to be 6300 animals, while the population was estimated at 4200 animals the last time a census was conducted in 2012. The population was approximately 32% smaller than when the first census was conducted in 1982 when the population was roughly 9200 animals. Analysis for the period 2005–2017 revealed no statistically significant trend for the total population size since the current population size is close to the estimated population size of 2008/9 and slightly larger than the estimate of 2005.
In 2017 the population was estimated to be larger than the governmental management objective for the grey seal population of 4100 animals. According to the Icelandic red list for threatened populations, which is based on criteria put forward by IUCN, the grey seal population should at its current level be considered as “Vulnerable”. Based on the last census from 2012, the population was considered as “Endangered”.
The results show that the peak of the pupping period varied from 2 October (Frameyjar in Breiðafjörður) to 24 October (Strandir). Breiðafjörður was the most important pupping area in Iceland, with 58% of the total estimated pup production in 2017. Other important breeding sites were Strandir and Skagafjörður in NW Iceland, as well as Surtsey and Öræfi on the South Coast.
The status of the grey seal population is considerably better than that of the Icelandic harbor seal population, which has declined by 77% from 1980 when censuses commenced, and a decrease of one third was observed between the years 2011 and 2016 when a census was last conducted. The Icelandic harbor seal population is considered as “Critically endangered” according to the Icelandic red list.
ReSea held a session on Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes at Þjódarspegillinn 2018 on 26 October 2018. The research network called ReSea (Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes) began on June 2016 as a cooperation between the Icelandic Seal Center, Hólar University College, the Icelandic Tourism Research Center (ITRC), the Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, and the Arctic University of Norway. It has since grown to include a total of 20 experts from 11 institutions and organizations from 5 countries with an aim in conducting interdisciplinary research guided by inter-sectoral knowledge. ReSea research is focused on the following guiding research question. “How can tourism be performed responsibly in Arctic seascapes?” The long-term purpose of this network is to connect international experts and stakeholders to address the need for sustainable tourism development and responsible tourism practices in Arctic coastal communities and seascapes. Researchers during this session discussed their work exploring the understanding of sustainable tourism and responsible management practices in Arctic seascapes. Their work highlights the importance of collaborating with a variety of stakeholders and academics from both the social and natural sciences which incorporates interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral research and knowledge.
Þjóðarspegillinn 2018 Session Agenda: Responsible Tourism in Arctic Seascapes (ReSea)
12:00-12:05—Jessica Faustini Aquino (Chair)
Discussion of the ReSea Network and an Introduction to Today’s Session
12:05-12:30—Auður H. Ingólfsdóttir (Chair)
Whale watching and sustainable development
Auður is a researcher at the Icelandic Tourism Research Centre (ITRC). Her research interests are in the field of sustainable tourism and include topics such as climate change and tourism, nature-based tourism, and CSR within the tourist sector.
Cruise ship visits to coastal communities
Þórný is a researcher at the Icelandic Tourism Research Centre (ITRC). Her research interests are in regional tourism development where recent research projects have taken focus in on-land service of cruise ships and the regional tourism linked to passenger visits.
Developing a framework for responsible wildlife tourism
Jessica holds a joint position as the Head of Tourism Research at the Icelandic Seal Center and Assistant Professor at Hólar University College in the Department of Rural Tourism. Her research interests are in tourism experience from the perspective of residents and tourists; volunteer tourism; sustainable tourism and responsible tourism practices; and the potential contribution that tourism has on community development and responsible management of natural areas.
13:20-13:45—Sandra M. Granquist and Jessica Faustini Aquino
Effects of seal watching activities on harbour seal behaviour: The importance of interdisciplinary management approaches
Sandra holds a joint position as the Head of Seal Research at the Icelandic Seal Center and Specialist at The Marine and Freshwater Research Institute in the Pelagic division. Sandra’s research interests range from animal population biology to responsible wildlife tourism, including: Monitoring of Icelandic seal populations and management advice; Studies on animal behaviour; Anthropogenic interactions with marine mammals, such as effects of tourism on marine mammal ecology; Transferring of scientific knowledge to society.
13:45-14:00—Final discussions with all of the presenters
The tourist information centre for Hunathing vestra at the Icelandic Seal Centre welcomed 1679 guests during the first three months of 2018. For the same quarter (Q1) in 2017 we welcomed 1958 guests. This is a Year-on-Year (YoY) 14% decrease in visitation.
Number of tickets sold to the museum also decreased in Q1 2018, by 10% YoY.
Decreases in visitation occurred in all 3 months, with January down 17%, February down 16%, and March down 13%. The decrease in visitation is partially explained by bad weather in January and February, as mountain passes to the North were frequently impassable, but this was not the case in March.
Q1 and Q4 is where the fewest visitors come to the centre, so this decrease does not have much significance to our total number of guests for the year – but these numbers may provide an indication of a cooling of the tourism sector in peripheral regions.
At the end of the year, it is time for a little retrospective. In 2017 the Húnaþing vestra Visitor Information Centre here at the Icelandic Seal Centre welcomed a total number of 42,481 guests in 2017. This is an 8% year-on-year (YoY) increase, and represents a significant softening of visitor number growth, as 2016 YoY growth was 44%, and 2015 YoY growth was 35%. In and of itself, a lesser growth in sheer numbers is not particularly concerning, but what is of concern is the 29% YoY decrease in turnover that the Seal Centre experienced last year according to our provisional numbers.
13,417 guests paid to visit our museum, which is a 12% increase YoY, and we are delighted that the number of visitors paying to enter the museum grew faster than the number of guests to the visitor centre – although, it must be noted that the aforementioned decrease in turnover occurred in spite of this increase in museum visits, it is therefore safe to say that in 2017 travellers clutched their purses tightly, when it came to leisure activities and souvenir shopping, at least.